Monday, February 24, 2020

The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

The Lottery by Shirley Jackson - Essay Example The townspeople all stone the â€Å"winner† to death at the end. The story, in effect, goes to prove the mindlessness of ritual. I agree that all around us people cling to rituals despite evidence that proves their futility and the detrimental effect thereof. It has always been ordinary people, and not especially vile or depraved ones, who have held strongly to rituals, and it is always these people who have carried out and condoned acts of savagery in the name of ritual. This theme is present in the story as well. It seems that Shirley Jackson has shown common townsfolk in the story to emphasize this very point. Jackson has, for instance, portrayed Mrs. Hutchinson as a common housewife, busy with her household works and taking care of her family. Upon being late at the event, she comments nonchalantly how she was busy washing the dishes (Jackson). Common people cling on to ritual and this is their way of defying the changing times. People do not take well to change. There is something within us, I feel, that makes us want to yearn for days gone by and for things we are accustomed to. This comfort is given to them through rituals as well. There is a certain nostalgia, as well as comfort, in performing rituals that makes them so hard to give up. When there is talk among the townsfolk about people in other villages giving up the lottery, an old man (Old Man Warner, to be exact) retorts how there is â€Å"nothing but trouble in that† (Jackson). His way of defending the lottery is not only that it is good for them, but also that â€Å"there’s always been a lottery† (Jackson). This is an interesting take, because it illustrates how the archaic nature of the ritual lottery is what gives it credence in the eyes of the old man. However, all in all it seems , there is not enough thought given about the ritual itself, and merely the fact that it has always been done is enough for it to continue. The very essence of a ritual is normally lost upon those who practice it. I

Saturday, February 8, 2020

DQ2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

DQ2 - Essay Example Job analysis is basically concerned with establishing the qualities and roles needed for an individual to perform the job and these range from qualifications, physical as well as mental capabilities. In the practice of HRM, this information is very useful as it would enable the recruiter to select the best candidate for the job from a pool of other applicants. Without detailed information about job analysis, it would be difficult to conduct job description which is very important in determining the position held by an employee as well as remuneration. If an employee is fully aware of the position he or she holds in the company, there would be less chances of confusion and duplication of duties since all the workers would be aware of the positions they hold within an organisation. The information gathered from a job analysis is very crucial in that it determines the value of a job within the organisation thereby allowing the management to make informed decisions in terms of compensation and benefits to the workers. Usually a salary that is commensurate with a person’s qualifications and skills is determined from information obtained from conducting a job analysis. The process of conducting a job analysis is also important in that it promotes good relations within an organisation. It often helps the organisation to be more objective in making performance appraisals as well as making informed decisions when employees are considered for promotion or even demotion. A well prepared job analysis is always advantageous in that it can help the employer to prove that any action that may be taken regarding employees would be legal. In most cases, decisions made from information obtained from a job analysis are often regarded as objective with little chances of b ias since they would be relying on practical data. 2. In recruitment of employees, there are

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Contact And Exchange Between Peoples And Cultures Essay Example for Free

Contact And Exchange Between Peoples And Cultures Essay Occupation is not a victory, yet, discrimination and oppression evoke acrimony among the native people, which impedes European imperialists from conquering the native people. The Metis, a native group originally scattered across Canada as well as parts of the northern United States such as Montana, North Dakota and Northwest Minnesota. However, the Metis and other aboriginal groups suffered injustice in European colonialism, which is the main focus of this paper. The Aboriginal peoples were the original residents of Canada. It is a collective word for the diversity of the indigenous people. The word was incorporated in the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982 and concerns to the Inuit and the Metis people. The term aboriginal has provided a sense of unity among the indigenous peoples and also served the role of erasing the different historical, cultural practice, sovereignty and languages of over fifty countries that lived in Canada preceding to European colonization. It is believed that the Metis fatherly ancestry originated from different nationalities; Irish, French, English and Scottish while the mothers came from the Native Indian. So the Merits are of mixed blood. Nevertheless, the Metis were able to adopt both the European and the Indian culture through utilizing what was suitable to their necessities. However, the European colonization led to their suffering and injustice. During this time the Metis suffered prejudice, racism and injustice. The Relationship of the Metis To their Land and the Manitoba Treaty The Metis practiced the concept of communism, meaning personal ownership of land were prohibited. They resisted external pressures to abandon this concept. However, with the European colonization, the Metis was denied the freedom to live the way they wanted, thus, they were forced to abandon the communism concept. As a matter of fact, the Metis who had occupied the lands in North America for decades before the European colonization were deprived during the European colonization, which in turn is still today whereby the political and legal approached deprive Metis societies of fundamental human rights The European solidified their attitudes towards race in their experience with the Metis. The clash between England and Ireland went beyond rivalries between the two developing nations. This was a clash between the semi-nomadic pastoralist and those who were settled on the land as farmers and grew a sedentary culture. The treatment of the Metis people in Cnanda was extremely similar to the treatment of the other Aboriginal peoples. As a matter of fact, the European established a hierarchical view of the earth where the value of other communities was judged against the image of their own, whereby human beings were viewed as continuing through different regular and specific stages of growth ranging from savagery to civilization. Furthermore, it was not only a social philosophy, but a moral Christian obligation placed on the European to guide the Metis who was regarded as uncivilized beings to the pinnacle of civilization. The European presented the capital structure, which embroiled racial segregation. This was opposite to what the Metis and other Aboriginal groups practiced. As a result, this concept led legitimacy to the undertaking of the dominant power whereby the European dominated the Metis. Through racial segregation, the Europeans were able to push the Metis out of their land, and exert control over all the aboriginal groups in North America. Indeed, race became a social norm and an unquestioned reason to privilege. It was one employed with great insight against the Metis people in Canada. Thus, although most of the treaties had different positive effects in the aboriginals, most of them caused these communities a devastating effect. The treaties cost the Aboriginals a lot, including their land. Besides being forced to give up their culture, they ended up with a much smaller tract of land as a result of improper negotiations. Also, though the provision of education and health care has been cru cial in maintaining the Aboriginal cultures, other benefits such as farm implements and the right to utilize land were much smaller compared to the tracts of lands given in their exchange. Furthermore, the implications resulting in the signing of treaties caused a large number of deaths among them. According to Miller (2000), prior to 1870, the Aboriginal population decreased by about 75percent under the hands of the European settlers. The Fur Trade Canada expanded in a unique manner whereby it traded fur with other countries. Fur trade played a significant role in creating boundaries, which still exist today because borders are grounded on its dissimilar resilience in the North America. As a matter of fact, the importance of the fur trade lies in its commitment of the geographic platform. Through this trade, the development of the Metis emerged with their own language and culture. Indeed, the trade depended on the productive skill and the organizational capabilities in the Metis people. Therefore, the Metis and the Indians regulated the fur trade and only traded when it was convenient for them to do so. Moreover, the Metis were sought to travel through canoe into the interior to carry out trade with the Indian community. The fur trade helped the European to penetrate to Canada, and as a result, they started assimilating the Metis community. They disregarded their culture, beliefs and norms and waged to change their culture as w ell as their behavior. The Metis were culturally undistinguished from other Canadainas. The Land Scrip During the 18th century in Canada, the government gave out scrip certificate giving the right holder to either a certain acreage of land or an amount of money that could be used to the buy on land. These certificates were given out to individual Metis to fulfill their claim to land ownership. However, most people did not get the scrip who eventually was the original inhabitants of the land, meaning that the entire Metis communities who had stayed on the land for decades were sidelined of their rightful heritage. Moreover, it was not only the manner in which the Metis was deprived of their original land. Likewise, the Juvenile Act of Manitoba was modified to permit Metis minors to sell or dispose of their script, thus creating an opportunity for abuse. The government also opposed to a powerful Metis constituency and enterprise interests desiring to gather vast tracts of land colluded to ensure that the Metis of the West of forlorn become landless people. The Metis was not included, fr ightened, swindled or made to kill of the land consisting rudimentary way that consecutive Canadians would follow to open up Canada. As a result, the Metis were forced to live on unutilized parts of the land, which is the reason that they were referred to as the â€Å"Road Allowance People† meaning that they were bound to make their geographical area on the government land on either side of the road. Louis Riel and the Manitoba Drawing from Louis Riel who was the founder of Manitoba and a Metis leader, it is clear that the Metis were harassed unjustly. Riel was murdered by the government for treason. He had united the Metis community and led to a famous Metis government that was central in taking Manitoba into Confederation, but his aim was to preserve the Metis community from the Canadian authority. Riel also led the Metis at the Red River whereby the Canadian government had appointed McDougall as the governor whose mission was to re-stake the Metis land. The Metis opposed him through Riel so as to preserve their cultural, social and political status of the Metis in the Red River as well as the Northwest. As a matter of fact, intermarriages between the Europeans and the Metis or the aboriginals was prohibited. Riel was considered a hero because he defended the Catholic faith and the French culture in Manitoba. It is for this reason that went back to North America after being in exile for four months in the United States. The British and the Canadian government did not support the Metis beliefs and wanted to establish the Protestant beliefs. Nevertheless, the opposition from the Metis through the influence of Riel did not last long when he was captured and executed. Riel was executed without any trial with British or Canadian law for his section in the Red River resistance. The Residential Schools Just like other Aboriginal peoples, the Metis were placed in residential schools over the course of a hundred years. These schools stripped children of their languages and culture so as to eliminate the Metis problem and assimilate them into the society. The Metis in residential schools survived sexual as well as physical abuses, loss of identity as well as language. As a result, many of the Metis children as well as other Aboriginal people’s did not survive at all. Indeed, there are still unrequited questions about how some kids vanished. Nevertheless, the current dispute resolution program in North America, especially Canada does not address the fundamentals harms suffered by Aboriginal peoples as a result of the Indian Residential Schools system that was expressly introduced to remove Aboriginal languages and culture, and to murder the Indian in the child. The government’s strategy for accomplishing its policy aim concerned removing children from their families, puni shing them for speaking their aboriginal language and denying them the right to follow their spiritual teachings and traditional celebrations and failing to give them adequate education. In conclusion, from the above discussion, it is clear that the Metis as well as other Aboriginal communities in North America suffered injustices. They were killed because of their language and beliefs, disregarded because of their culture and mixed blood, they were racially segregated and denied their right to own land. As a result, they ended up in the Manitoba reserve with small parts of land and some none. Neither were their appreciated in residential schools whereby their kids were physically and sexually abused. And though all these things are known by the government, nothing much has improved in Canada for the Metis as well as other aboriginals. References Brown, D., Kingston, O. (1992). Aboriginal governments and power sharing in Canada. Kingston, Ont.: Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, Queens University. First Nations in Canada. (1997). Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Howe, P., Bedford, D. (2007). Electoral participation of Aboriginals in Canada.Noble, T. (2008). Western civilization: Beyond boundaries (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rambaut, T. (1987). The Hudsons Bay Half-Breeds and Louis Riels Rebellions. Political Science Quarterly, 135-135. Source document

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Physics of Scales :: Physics Weight Scale Essays

The Physics of Scales To the dismay of some and a necessity for others, scales can be found about everywhere in today’s society. It never fails; if you go to the doctor you will step on the scale. They are at the grocery store, in most bathrooms and even in some of our favorite stores. Were we might even pay a quarter to have a machine tell us our weight, out loud. We as a society are obsessed with our weight. You’re asked for your weight when renewing your driver’s license. Every time you get in an elevator and see the little sign saying do not exceed *** lbs, the quarter-pounder with cheese and milkshake you ate for lunch, is brought back to your memory. A scale receives more mental and physical abuse than any other appliance that has ever been invented. All this abuse stems from a lesson each of use were taught at a young age, which is that we should always tell the truth. Well let’s look a little deeper into the scale and see the physics involved in how two different typesà ¢â‚¬â„¢ of scales weigh objects. There are two general kinds of scales. The first is a spring scale and the other type uses a load cell to electronically register a weight. Spring scales are the most common type of scale. The scale in your bathroom and those found in the produce department of your favorite grocery store are examples of spring scales. This summer when you go to weigh that fat juicy watermelon, think about the mechanics of how the scale works. The basket is attached to a spring that stretches in response to the weight of the melon or other objects placed in it. The weight of the melon creates a downward force. This causes the spring to stretch and increase its upward force, which equalizes the difference between the two forces. As the spring is stretched, a dial calibrated to the spring registers a weight. When designing scales one needs to take into account that every spring has a different spring constant (k). Bloomfield (1997) defines k as â€Å"a measure of the spring’s stiffness. The larger the spring constant-that is, the stiffer the spring-the larger the restoring forces the spring exerts† (p. 82). In analyzing the force associated with a certain spring, whether it is in you pen or under your truck, Hooke’s Law applies. The Physics of Scales :: Physics Weight Scale Essays The Physics of Scales To the dismay of some and a necessity for others, scales can be found about everywhere in today’s society. It never fails; if you go to the doctor you will step on the scale. They are at the grocery store, in most bathrooms and even in some of our favorite stores. Were we might even pay a quarter to have a machine tell us our weight, out loud. We as a society are obsessed with our weight. You’re asked for your weight when renewing your driver’s license. Every time you get in an elevator and see the little sign saying do not exceed *** lbs, the quarter-pounder with cheese and milkshake you ate for lunch, is brought back to your memory. A scale receives more mental and physical abuse than any other appliance that has ever been invented. All this abuse stems from a lesson each of use were taught at a young age, which is that we should always tell the truth. Well let’s look a little deeper into the scale and see the physics involved in how two different typesà ¢â‚¬â„¢ of scales weigh objects. There are two general kinds of scales. The first is a spring scale and the other type uses a load cell to electronically register a weight. Spring scales are the most common type of scale. The scale in your bathroom and those found in the produce department of your favorite grocery store are examples of spring scales. This summer when you go to weigh that fat juicy watermelon, think about the mechanics of how the scale works. The basket is attached to a spring that stretches in response to the weight of the melon or other objects placed in it. The weight of the melon creates a downward force. This causes the spring to stretch and increase its upward force, which equalizes the difference between the two forces. As the spring is stretched, a dial calibrated to the spring registers a weight. When designing scales one needs to take into account that every spring has a different spring constant (k). Bloomfield (1997) defines k as â€Å"a measure of the spring’s stiffness. The larger the spring constant-that is, the stiffer the spring-the larger the restoring forces the spring exerts† (p. 82). In analyzing the force associated with a certain spring, whether it is in you pen or under your truck, Hooke’s Law applies.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Hot and Cold Essay

Since time immemorial, Indians have been bombarded with snacks-to-go by street vendors; fastfood is neither a modern phenomenon, nor a western innovation. But as increasing numbers of international players enter the domestic market, there are bitter lessons to learn about what local consumers will and will not welcome. just-food.com’s Debasish Ganguly reports from India on the evolving sector and the challenges facing new entrants into the fastfood market. Fastfood is not an alien concept to Indians; roadside shops have offered snacks-to-go since time immemorial and the country has a long tradition of indigenous fastfood served by a variety of street vendors. Whether the southern ‘Dosas’ or the ‘Phulkas’ in the north, the ‘Vada’, ‘Samosas’ or ‘Bhelpuri’, this inexpensive cuisine is still going strong, and street selling is a low-cost method of food distribution. However, since the arrival of established fastfood chains such as McDonald’s, marketing savvy and dollar power have given fastfood a very western orientation. The weekend stampedes outside any McDonalds restaurant are standing testimony to this fact. But the burger behemoths still have a long way to go. Local fastfood is not easily undermined by these interlopers, since methods of mass production have not been perfected and, in any case, they would have to compete with low cost ‘artisan’ production. On the other hand, the reality is that established local fastfood chains, like Nirulas, Wimpys or Haldiram, are sensing competition by the growing popularity of McDonald’s and other international chains. Though Nirulas does not admit to any drop in sales overtly, industry sources reveal that they have lost 18% of their original market share. So far, the fastfood chains have gained their popularity among the major metropolitan cities of India and some smaller cities, such as Pune or Baroda. Before the arrival of these fastfood chains, Nirulas was the market leaderin Delhi. In fact, Nirulas taught Delhi-dwellers what pizzas and burgers were all about. Nirulas was commanding a monopoly until western chains arrived in India.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Society s Moral Stance On Killing And Violence - 1409 Words

Killing another human being is what Western society would consider the most immoral act to commit. We see this reflected in pop culture, with comic book superheroes. While criminals kill others and break laws to achieve their ends, superheroes generally avoid killing or the very least view killing as immoral. An unusual case is Marvel’s The Punisher. He does not consider himself a criminal or a hero, rather he only does what he thinks is necessary, to make the earth a better place; however, society views him as a hero. Generally, only mainstream superheroes get to play the main roles; however, the Punisher has three films, soon to be a TV show and countless comics. The Punisher has made his way into the mainstream with many militaries†¦show more content†¦The criminal justice system proves ineffective in providing justice for Castle’s family. Consequently, Frank develops an alter ego known as the Punisher, a cold-blooded killer without morality (Abnett, Lannin g Eaglesham, 1995). With his newly established morals, he takes matters into his own hands seeking justice eliminating everyone he sees as a threat to society. The noble cause of the Punisher justifies torture and killing, which is reflected in society, even though it leads to eliminating superheroes and supervillains alike. While the Punisher does eventually wipe out all the criminals and supervillains, it is important to realize in the process, he ends up killing many innocent superheroes as well. The unavoidable evil of killing innocent superheroes is justified and seen as a means to an end to clean the streets of crime and establishing peace. Emphasizing the extent, the Punisher justifies killing for the greater good. Along with killing, the Punisher is seen torturing to gain information. According to Halevy Cooper (2016) â€Å"The use of torture in popular culture media could be seen as a reflection of how torture is used by the U.S. government in real, society-threatening s ituations† (p. 118). On one hand, this is seen unethical, but on the other hand it’s justifiable for the greater good, reflecting the debate stage of the real world. By skipping the bureaucracy of theShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Is A Simple Name For A Very Controversial1297 Words   |  6 Pagesdecision; one that would protect the most people. However, once examined carefully, it becomes obvious that the death penalty suffers too greatly from a regression of support, racial discrimination and inadequacy as a criminal deterrent to fulfill its moral purpose. Rather than receive federal support, replacement of the death penalty for life without parole would put an end to decades of wrongdoings. The first question that occurs when discussing the death penalty is simply whether or not the governmentRead MorePersuasive Essay On Capital Punishment1621 Words   |  7 Pagesnearly six decades. 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Our stance appeals to both sides because we do not abolish the death penalty outright, nor do we leave the capital punishment situation unchanged. We will appease those looking for abolishment by greatly restricting the use of the death penalty, and, asRead MoreAnalysis of Article I ´d Sell YOu Sucide: Pop Music and Moral Panic in the Age of Marilyn Manson by Robert Wright1548 Words   |  7 PagesMusic and Moral Panic in the Age of Marilyn Manson†, Robert Wright delves into and debunks claims that rock music, especially that of Marilyn Manson, is a main cause for teenage suicide. The title of this article says a lot about the content. In one line the author sums up the premise of the article. We can understand the title more intricately by splitting it up into three parts. The first part of the title is â€Å"I’d Sell You Suicide†. The phrase embodies the popularization of violence and suicidal

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Evolution and Analysis of the Principle of Legitimate Expectation - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2985 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? I. Introduction à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“A man should keep his words. All the more so when promise is not a bare promise but is made with the intention that the other party should act upon ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [1] A law cannot be found upon mere trust and expectations, no matter how reasonable it may sound. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Evolution and Analysis of the Principle of Legitimate Expectation" essay for you Create order For the individuals to act on the law, the law has to be concrete and defined. Therefore, laws are codified and precedents are established, to bring about the union of constancy and certainty. Laws, once formed, create expectations in the mind of the persons that such laws will be justly implemented and observed by the administrative authorities with any sort of arbitrariness. At the same time, laws have to undergo constant changes and modifications and repealments to meet the challenges of a constantly changing society and to do more justice. The principle of legitimate expectancy keeps a check on the arbitrary exercise of power by public authorities, by defining the ambit within which the administrative authorities can change the law, and in this manner giving relief to an aggrieved individual against an arbitrary use of power even when such relief does not exists under statute law. II. The Principle of Legitimate Expectation Lord Denning[2] first made the mention of the prin ciple of legitimate expectation, which was later adopted by courts all over the world.[3] The doctrine of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“legitimate Expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  falls within the ambit of public law. The principle protects individuals from an arbitrary exercise of administrative authority by a public body and offers relief to those who has suffered a civil wrong due to the non-fulfilment of his legitimate expectations. However, under the strict meaning of the principle under the law, the claimant has no rights under this principle in a court of law.[4] It positions itself between à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a rightà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“no rightà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , giving an individual a right to approach the court, and differs from hope and desire. The principle has been widely implemented by Indian Courts to restrict the arbitrary exercise of power by administrative system. In general, a person has a right to approach the courts for relief under private law when his rights arising out of a statute or contract has been violated. However, in public law, this rule relaxes the rule of locus standi by permitting an individual to approach the courts whenever his rightful expectations from the administrative bodies have been breached.[5] Therefore, this doctrine is considered to be developed from the principles natural justice and comes under Article 14 of the Constitution.[6] Essentially, the principle of legitimate expectation protests against arbitrariness and encourages fair dealing by public authorities. Like majority of other doctrines in administrative law, legitimate expectation is a theory created by the Courts for the examination of administrative actions. III. Types of Legitimate Expectation Originally having a procedural aspect, with the evolution of the doctrine of legitimate expectation, the doctrine was divided into two categories by the courts. In common law, Lord Diplockà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision in the case of Council of Civil Service Union v. Minister for Civil Service,[7] laid down the two facets of the doctrine. The Indian Court acknowledged these two aspects given by the English Court in the case of National Buildings Construction Corporation v S. Raghunathan[8]. The two aspects of legitimate expectations are: A. Procedural Aspect This is the most frequently used aspect of legitimate expectation. The procedural aspect raises and preserves the principles of natural justice and maintains equity and fairness. It prevents the public bodies from arbitrary and unreasonable exercise of administrative power. The procedural aspect assures that an appropriate and fair hearing will be carried out, and an opportunity to make representations will be provided before taking any hostile decision against the expectations of the individual.[9] B. Substantive Aspect The substantive aspect although a later addition to the doctrine, yet covers half the cases which within judicial review. The substantive aspect of the doctrine endorses and preserves the principle of equity and the doctrine of estoppel. It necessitates a representation through an assurance or regular past practice, which secures a benefit or an advantage to an individual.[10] The substantial aspect safeguards the individual against any aberration from this r epresentation, and protects the individual against any harm suffered during the sequence of events. IV. Evolution in English Law The principle of legitimate expectation was first used in Schmidt v. Secy of Stare for Home Affairs[11], in which the government had curtailed the time period already allowed to an alien to arrive and stay in England. It was held that the rightful expectations of an individual cannot be thwarted by the administrative authorities unless a fair and reasonable procedure is followed. In the present case, legitimate expectation was only used to replace the term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“rightà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . However, this case laid down the groundwork for subsequent development; the doctrine has since developed and occupied a strong position in administrative law jurisprudence. After this case, the doctrine was expansively discussed in Breen v. Amalgamated Engg. Union[12] where the district committee of a trade union had deprived endorsement of a member from being elected as shop steward. The court held that when an individual has rightful expectations that his election will be permitted, he cannot be deprived of the same without a fair ground of objection. The court in abovementioned case acknowledged that legitimate expectation is a part of the principles of natural justice. Likewise, in case of Attorney General of Hongkong v. Ng Yuen Shiu[13], while crushing the directive of removal passed by the Hong Kong Immigration Authority without notice and hearing, the court decided that the statement made by the concerned authority that while investigating cases of illegal immigration, each case shall be judged on merits and facts. This is based on the principle of legitimate expectation between immigrants that removal order shall be delivered following a procedure of hearing and fair notice. Raising the doctrine of legitimate expectation, the House of Lords in Council of Civil Service Union v. Minister of Civil Services[14] decided that legitim ate expectations may take birth from a time-honoured past practice or a communication or a promise made by the public body. In the present case, the authority had revoked an established past practice by oral orders. However, the doctrine of legitimate expectation enforces a duty upon public bodies to act judiciously in general, not restricted to circumstances where an individual has to be given a fair chance to make representation. Hereafter, the doctrine levies broad limitations upon administrative bodies to act reasonably and with fairness in the interest of people, regardless of whether law decrees discussion from such people or not.[15] In R v. Secy of State for Home Deptt., Ex. P. Asif Mahmood Khan[16], the court decided that when an authority makes a statement as regards the process that shall be followed, it generates a legitimate expectation amongst the people that the same shall be observed. Hereafter, the authority is under a responsibility to follow the stated procedure. The principle as evolved in England over the course of last three decades has assumed major importance and has been acknowledged by several jurisdictions, including India. However, it is still in a developing stage, where each jurisdiction has restricted its growth taking into consideration their local circumstances. The Indian Courts have recognised the doctrine as a law of land to deter public bodies from an arbitrary exercise of powers. V. Application of the Principle in India The Principle of Legitimate Expectation in India has originated from common law like many other principles. In India, this doctrine has been implemented through the mechanism of judicial review, scrutinizing the actions of public bodies on grounds of fairness. The principle of legitimate expectation was first acknowledged in India in the case of State of Kerela v. K.G Madhavan Pillai[17], where legitimate expectation produced by a sanction order was used to reject a later order on the ground of abu se of natural justice. The resulting application of the principle was in the case of Scheduled Castes and Weaker Section Welfare Association v. State of Karnataka[18]. In this case, the action of an administrative authority formed a rightful expectation in the mind of the public and therefore this resulted in the requirement of a just hearing when the authority acted in a manner to thwart that expectation. Legitimate expectation is generated by the administrative bodies either through an express assurance to the public to act in a certain way or doing certain things or through recognized practice or previous actions which produce expectations in the minds of the public.[19] This principle is applied exclusively in the framework of administrative law, and confers an obligation on the authorities to justify any nonconformity from recognized practices or promise, to limit any arbitrariness in their conduct.[20] A. Nature and Scope of Legitimate Expectation The scope of legitim ate expectation was explored in the case of Navjyoti Coop. Group Housing Society v. Union of India[21]. The case gave the opportunity to the courts to scrutinize any decision made by the administrative authorities, if their decision affected an individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s right to enjoy certain benefits which formerly he was allowed to enjoy and rightfully expected to continue to enjoy in the future. The decision made it certain that only a superseding public policy would be able to clarify nonconformity from what has been rightfully expected. This conferred an obligation on the authorities to act reasonably and in the interest of the general public. The overriding of public policy was applied in the judgment of Food Corpn. of India v. Kamdhenu Cattle Feed Industries.[22], to demonstrate nonconformity with the rightful expectation to grant tender to the highest bidder. In the case of Ram Pravesh Singh v. State of Bihar[23], the Court defined what exactly would create an establi shed practice. A consistent, regular, certain and predictable conduct, which differentiates itself from being a casual or irregular conduct, would be considered as a practice which is established and consistent. The practice also has to be reasonable and logical. The idea of expectation was explored in the decision of Union of India v. Hindustan Development Corporation[24], where distinction was made between à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“anticipationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , and it was held that any right or desire or mere disappointment did not refer to as expectation. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  under the doctrine is in the sense of being à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“justifiably legitimate and protectableà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . And the legitimacy is to be based on the consent of law or an recognized procedure naturally observed. Yet some misunderstanding still exists regarding à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“legitimate expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  being considered a right. The case of M.P. Oil Extraction v. State of M.P.[25], held that legitimate expectation in a suitable scenario would comprise of an enforceable right. Nonetheless, Supreme Court made it evident in Ram Pravesh Singh[26], by explicitly discarding the idea of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“legitimate expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  being a legal right. The court said that it can only apply in circumstances where an expectation is involved, which is justified and made legitimate by an established past practice or an express promise. Additionally, as per Confederation of Ex-Serviceman Assns v. Union of India[27], the principle only gives an opportunity to a fair hearing and just procedure to be followed only to the person who is expecting. Only such a person is entitled to know the reasons for denial or order by the Court to the authorities to follow the established practice. B. Principle of Legitimate Expectation and Equity The principle is considered to be a part of the principle of equity, as was se en in M.P Oil Extraction case[28], where equitable treatment was given to companies with whom the Government had contracted to supply sal seeds based on the renewal clause within the contract. The principle of equity was further endorsed in the case of Raj Kumar v. Union of India[29], where it was recognized that a person could be debarred of availing of the principle of legitimate expectation based on the conduct of the person himself. In this case, legitimate expectation was opposed based on equity, as the BSF guards tried to gain retiral benefits without validly retiring. In the case of National Buildings Construction Corporation[30], the functional aspect of legitimate expectation was stressed upon and it was said that the situation should be dealt with in a similar manner as if the principle of promissory estoppel was applied. Furthermore, this case along with Punjab Communication v. Union of India[31], laid down an additional criteria where the doctrine of legitimate expect ation cannot be applied. It was established through previous case laws that the only exception to legitimate expectation was public interest. However, now in terms of significant legitimate expectation the action or order of the administrative authority had to go through a test of reasonableness before assessing public interest. If the order or action fulfills the Wednesbury principle of reasonableness, so that the action or order of the authority is not unreasonable or even adverse, the public interest involved in the order can be evaluated. VI. Conclusion From the discussion and analysis of the case laws and authorities above, it becomes clear that the doctrine of legitimate expectation imposes an obligation and duty on the administrative authorities to act fairly and reasonably. The principle owes its origin application to various kinds of situations and is very broad in itself. Hence, it is not feasible to come up with an exhaustive list of actions which will give rise to situations of legitimate expectation. This is because government activities in themselves are vast and expansive and change as time goes by. However, one thing has become certain that courts cannot pretend to have jurisdiction in order to review an administrative act under the cover of legitimate expectation as I would be unfair on the part of the court. It is commonly agreed that legitimate expectation generally allows the person to approach Court and to claim the right of fair representation or hearing in a situation where his rights were affected arbitrarily. The doctrine does not give opportunity to claim remedy at once from the administrative authorities as no clear right as such is directly involved. Consequently, even if the safeguard is guaranteed based on legitimate expectation, it does not guarantee total relief to the person. The appeal of legitimate expectation still remains a very feeble appeal in Indian Administrative Law. A right to benefit based on legitimate e xpectation is negative by the courts more often than is known. In a situation of confusion over the idea of legitimate expectation what needs to be cleared is that the concept envisions not only à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  but à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“legitimate expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  meaning which there is something super-imposed to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“expectationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ - a certain kind of promise or assurance by the administrative authorities or the fact that the expectation was established by some long-standing practice. The concept is embedded more in the principles of equity than in legal rules. Bibliography I. Books: SP Sathe, Administrative Law (seventh edition), Lexis Nexis (2010) MP Jain and SN Jain, Principles of Administrative Law (sixth edition) Lexis Nexis (2013) IP Massey, Administrative Law, Eastern Book Company (2001) II. Articles Lord Denning, Recent development in the Doctrine of consideration, Modern Law Review, Vol. 15, 1956. Sushant Rochlan, Doctrine of Legitimate Expectation, January 21, 2011, available at https://lex-warrier.in/2011/01/doctrine-of-legitimate-expectation/ [Last seen on 14th February, 2015] III. Case Laws Schmidt v. Secy of Stare for Home Affairs (1969) 2 WLR 337 R. Clerk, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“In pursuit of Fair Justiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  AIR 1996 (J) 11 Council of Civil Service Union v. Minister for Civil Service, (1983) UKHL 6 National Buildings Construction Corporation v S. Raghunathan , (1998) 7 SCC 66. Breen v. Amalgamated Engg. Union , (1971) 2 QB 175 Attorney General of Hongkong v. Ng Yuen Shiu , (1983) 2 AC 629 Council of Civil Service Union v. Minister of Civil Services , 1985 AC 374 R v Secy of State for Home department, Ex. P. Ruddock, (1987) 1 WLR 1482 R v. Secy of State for Home Deptt., Ex. P. Asif Mahmood Khan , (1984) I WLR 1337 State of Kerela v. K.G Madhavan Pillai , AIR 1989 SC 49 Scheduled Castes and Weaker Section Welfare Association v. State of Karnataka , [1991]2 SCC 60 Navjyoti Coop. Group Housing Society v. Union of India , (1992) 4 SCC 477. Food Corpn. of India v. Kamdhenu Cattle Feed Industries (1993) 1 SCC 71. Ram Pravesh Singh v. State of Bihar , 1999 (1) BLJR 625 Union of India v. Hindustan Development Corporation , (1993) 3 SCC 499 M.P. Oil Extraction v. State of M.P (1997) 7 SCC 592. Confederation of Ex-Serviceman Assns v. Union of India , (2006) 8 SCC 399 M.P Oil Extraction case ,1990 (0) MPLJ 675 Raj Kumar v. Union of India , 1969 AIR 180 National Buildings Construction Corporation case , 72 (1998) DLT 121 Punjab Communication v. Union of India , (1999) 4 SCC 727 1 [1] Lord Denning, Recent development in the Doctrine of consideration, Modern Law Review, Vol. 15, 1956. [2] See, Schmidt v. Secy of Stare for Home Affairs (1969) 2 WLR 337 [3] R. Clerk, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“In pursuit of Fair Justiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  AIR 1996 (J) 11 [4] SP Sathe, Administrative Law (seventh edition), Lexis Nexis (2010) [5] MP Jain and SN Jain, Principles of Administrative Law (sixth edition) Lexis Nexis (2013) [6] Id. [7] Council of Civil Service Union v. Minister for Civil Service, (1983) UKHL 6 [8] National Buildings Construction Corporation v S. Raghunathan , (1998) 7 SCC 66. [9] Sushant Rochlan, Doctrine of Legitimate Expectation, January 21, 2011, available at https://lex-warrier.in/2011/01/doctrine-of-legitimate-expectation/ [Last seen on 14th February, 2015] [10] Id. [11] Schmidt case, Supra n. 1 [12] Breen v. Amalgamated Engg. Union , (1971) 2 QB 175 [13] Attorney General of Hongkong v. Ng Yuen Shiu , (1983) 2 AC 629 [14] Council of Civil Service Union v. Minister of Civil Services , 1985 AC 374 [15]R v Secy of State for Home department, Ex. P. Ruddock, (1987) 1 WLR 1482 [16] R v. Secy of State for Home Deptt., Ex. P. Asif Mahmood Khan , (1984) I WLR 1337 [17] State of Kerela v. K.G Madhavan Pillai , AIR 1989 SC 49 [18] Scheduled Castes and Weaker Section Welfare Association v. State of Karnataka , [1991]2 SCC 604 [19] IP Massey, Administrative Law, Eastern Book Company (2001) [20] Id. [21] Navjyoti Coop. Group Housing Society v. Union of India , (1992) 4 SCC 477. [22] Food Corpn. of India v. Kamdhenu Cattle Feed Industries (1993) 1 SCC 71. [23] Ram Pravesh Singh v. State of Bihar , 1999 (1) BLJR 625 [24] Union of India v. Hindustan Development Corporation , (1993) 3 SCC 499 [25] M.P. Oil Extraction v. State of M.P (1997) 7 SCC 592. [26] Supra 22 [27] Confederation of Ex-Serviceman Assns v. Union of India , (2006) 8 SCC 399 [28] M.P Oil Extraction case ,1990 (0) MPLJ 675 [29] Raj Kumar v. Union of India , 1969 AIR 180 [30] National Buildings Construction Corporation case , 72 (1998) DLT 121 [31] Punjab Communication v. Union of India , (1999) 4 SCC 727